|Neelakanta, Perambur. Handbook of Electromagnetic Materials. New York: CRC, 1995.||"A magnetic flux density of 20 tesla can be produced by superconductor-based selenoids of about 12 x 20 cm."||20 T|
|Duncan, Robert & Dave Dooling. Magnetars. Science@NASA, 1998.||"The strongest, sustained magnetic fields produced by humans in laboratories, 4 × 105 gauss"||40 T|
|Yarris, Lynn. Berkeley Lab Magnet Sets World Record. Berkeley Lab Research News, 30 April 1997.||"A one-meter long superconducting electromagnet, featuring coils wound out of 14 miles of niobium-tin wire, reached a field strength as high as 13.5 tesla, far-surpassing the previous high of 11.03 tesla set by a Dutch group in 1995."||13.5 T|
|"The LHC magnets are expected to operate at a field strength of 8.6 tesla which is approaching the 10 tesla mark that is considered to be the upper limit of niobium-titanium accelerator magnets."||8.6 T|
|"Most Powerful Magnet." Popular Mechanics. March 1998.||"By combining a conventional electromagnet and a superconducting magnet, the National High Magnetic Field Lab hopes to produce the highest steady field ever achieved, 45 tesla"||45 T
|Intoduction to Pulse magnetic Technology. National High Magnetic field Lab (NHMFL).||"The magnetic forces produced by pulse magnets are as high as 72 T and that may increase as new materials and designs are used."||72 T|
|Pulsed Magnet. National High Magnetic field Lab (NHMFL).||"850 T, strongest destructive pulsed magnet
60 T, long pulse magnet
33 T, continuous field magnet"
|Argonne builds a tradition of world-class superconducting magnets. Argonne National Laboratory.||"Built in 1981, this 200 ton superconducting dipole magnet still holds the world record for the highest magnetic field ever generated by a magnet of its type -- 6 tesla, 180,000 times the Earth's magnetic field."||6 T|
A magnet is a metallic object capable of attracting iron and certain other metals and alloys. Around every magnet there is a region in which the force of the magnet exists. The region is called the magnetic field. The international unit of the magnetic field is the tesla (T). The strongest lab magnets are permanent, superconducting, and pulsed magnets. Permanent magnets retain their magnetism for a long time. The neodymium-iron-boron magnet is the strongest permanent magnet of our time, which can produce a field of about 0.1 T. Superconducting magnets are a type of electromagnet that produces a magnetic field from the flow electric current through a material with no resistance. A superconducting magnet can reach field strengths as high as 13.5 T. A pulse magnet provides very high magnetic field as high as 72 T.
Permanent magnets are used in compasses and small electric motors. The attraction of a neodymium-iron-boron magnet is so strong that when the magnets touch each other they may chip or cause a small bruise if your fingers are caught. Superconducting magnets are very useful because they sustain the magnetic field for a longer time period and can achieve a uniform magnetic field. They are used in Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and may be used for a magnetic levitating train (MAGLEV). In the future, superconducting magnets may be used for nuclear fusion power generators, traffic systems, and medical apparatus. Pulsed magnets provide brief, but extreme magnetic fields. Their average life expectancy is between 500 and 800 pulses.
Anna Woo -- 2000
|Researchers Set New World Records for High Temperature Superconducting Magnet. National High Magnetic Field Laboratory. Press release, 25 August 2003.||"Engineers and scientists at the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory (NHMFL) successfully tested an innovative 5 tesla high temperature superconductor (HTS) insert coil in a 20 tesla powered magnet at the laboratory on August 23, 2003. This test represents the first time that a superconducting magnet has ever generated magnetic fields of 25 tesla."||25 T|
|45 T Hybrid Magnet. NMR Spectroscopy and Imaging Program. National High Magnetic Field Laboratory.||"NHMFL's 45 Tesla hybrid magnet is the highest continuous magnet field available in the world. The outer superconducting coil produces static field of about 11 Tesla, with the rest of the field being generated by water-cooled resistive insert. Bore size diameter is 32 mm."||45 T|
|Cell15 - 45T, 32mm bore resistive magnet at the NHMFL. DC Field Facility. National High Magnetic Field Laboratory.||"Cell 15
42T, 32mm bore"
Editor's Supplement -- 2003