The Physics
Factbook
An encyclopedia of scientific essays

Voltage of a Nickel Cadmium Battery

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Bibliographic Entry Result
(w/surrounding text)
Standardized
Result
Tilley, Richard J. D. Understanding Solids: The Science of Materials. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 2004. "The cell voltage is 1.3V, but the working voltage is usually nearer to 1.2V." 1.2 V
Barron's Educational Series Inc. Barron's How to Prepare for the ASVAB: Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery. 8th edition. Hauppauge, NY: Barron's Editorial Dept., 2006 "The voltage of a nickel cadmium cell is 1.25 volts, and its output is constant." 1.25 V
Battery Application Manual. Eveready Battery Co. Inc, 2001 "During discharge, the average voltage of a sealed nickel cadmium battery is approximately 1.2 volts per cell." 1.2 V
Campos, Val. Nickel Cadmium Battery Care. (7 August 2006) "Each of these celled rated at 1.2 volts and the capacity ranges from 500ma (ma-milliamp hours) to 2000 ma." 1.2 V

Nickel cadmium batteries have been around for more than fifty years and they're still one of the best rechargeable batteries around. In 1899 Waldemar Jungner invented the NiCad (NiCad is short for a nickel cadmium battery). A NiCad is complied of rolled up layers of nickel with cadmium between the layers. NiCads are used to generate many appliances such as calculators, digital cameras, cassette players, radios, portable hand tools and shavers. They come in battery sizes that vary from AAA to D.

Purchasing NiCads may be a bit pricey compared to other rechargeable batteries, but they're more reliable and efficient than others. NiCads don't damage as easily as lithium ion batteries (another type of rechargeable battery) and they have a higher number of charge and discharge cycles than other rechargeable batteries. NiCads are usually more preferable than others because of its higher energy density. A small, light weight NiCad could have the same energy capacity as a heavy lead-acid battery. The weight of a battery might be considered when used in a cellular phone or in other portable devices. Due to the technological advances in handheld and portable devices, NiCads have been used more often and have become popular amongst these devices.

Another great quality about NiCads is that its voltage is relatively stable when it discharges. The voltage of a NiCad range from 1.2 to 1.25 volts compared to alkaline non-rechargeable batteries with a 1.5 voltage. With a steady voltage, the performance of an application will not change. In alkaline batteries, as the charge drops, the voltage drops, which may change the performance of a device and led to unsatisfied consumers. NiCads have many appealing qualities and many advantages and can be reused for a long time if handled with proper care.

May Wan -- 2007

Bibliographic Entry Result
(w/surrounding text)
Standardized
Result
Saft Nickel-Cadmium Batteries for Mass Transit Applications. SAFT Railway Technology. "Saft can offer now self-contained 24 V to 110 V battery units" 24–110 V
Battery (Secondary Cells): Encarta Online Encyclopedia. "It also produces about 1.15 V, and its useful lifetime is about 25 years." 1.15 V
Ni-Cd Batteries. Product Catalog. Radioshack. "Replace those old batteries with Ni-Cds and save money! 1.25 V, 600 mA hours." 1.25 V
Choice of Battery Chemistries. Cadex Electronics. "Cell voltage (nominal) - 1.25 V" 1.25 V

Batteries, how come they always run out so fast? As more and more mobile products such as cell phones, music players, computers and other electronic devices are produced; more batteries are needed. Someone (Waldmar Jungner) then came up with a bright idea of using rechargeable batteries. Instead of throwing the old ones away you can recharge them and they're like new.

One type of rechargeable battery is nickel cadmium. These batteries is about 1.2 volts but there are other batteries that contain up to 110 volts for various uses. Ni-Cds can be recharged about 1000 times. However, there are problems with rechargeable batteries. This problem is called the "memory"effect. "Memory effect"basically is if you use a battery and its not fully discharged before you recharge it again you may not be able to use the battery past the point where you used it up to before. For example, if you have fully charged battery and use it till there 50% of energy left then recharged it and do this repeatedly. The battery will somehow remember and think that that 50% is its capacity point. Then you will not be able to discharge the battery past the 50% point and these batteries would not be able to run as long as it did before. But! Some experts deny that this effect is true. They believe batteries have less capacity mainly because of overcharging. Batteries having the ability to "remember"is largely a myth (see: RepairFAQ.org).

Anyway, rechargeable batteries can be bought in Various sizes in a local electronic store near you. Standard pack of 2 AA Ni-Cd batteries would cost around $5.50 (Radioshack price). They are great to use and less expensive than regular batteries. So buy a pack today but BEWARE of the "memory"effect.

Johnny Lee -- 2001