|American Radio Relay League. The AARL Handbook. 1999: 11.20–11.22.||"Capacity may vary from 35 mAh for some of the small hearing-aid batteries to more than 100 Ah for a size 28 deep-cycle."||0.189 J–540 kJ
(assuming 1.5 V)
|Energy Density. Duracell (Original Equipment Manufacturers pages).||[see table below]||2.7–81 kJ|
Batteries are simple devices. The battery is a combination of two or more electric cells. The simplest cells are made up of plates of two different kinds of metal, which are kept in salty or acid liquid. When a wire connects the two plates, electrical current flows between them. Batteries are widely used as source of direct current electrical energy in automobiles, boats, aircraft, portable electric and electronic equipment, and lightning. Alkaline MnO2 are very popular, multi use batteries. Advantages include high energy output, reliability, long shelf life, and superior low temperature performance.
The formula for determining cell energy is:
E = P·t = V·I·t
I = Current Expressed in amperes
V = Electromotive force expressed in volts
P = Power expressed in watts
t = Time expressed in hours
E = Energy in joule
|Product Number||Size||Nominal Voltage (volts)||Rated Capacity*
D: (15.0 Ah) x (1.5 V) x (3600 s) = 81,000 J C: (7.80 Ah) x (1.5 V) x (3600 s) = 42,120 J AA: (2.85 Ah) x (1.5 V) x (3600 s) = 15,390 J AAA: (1.15 Ah) x (1.5 V) x (3600 s) = 6,210 J N: (0.80 Ah) x (1.5 V) x (3600 s) = 2,700 J
Silver oxide (1.5 V) and mercury (1.4 V) batteries are very good where nearly constant voltage is described at low currents for long periods. They may be found in mass-produced devices such as household smoke alarms.
Most portable stereo-cassette players operate from two, three or four AA batteries (3 to 6 volts total). Several C cells might be found in large models. Batteries that become cold have less of their energy available, and some attempt to keep a battery warm before use is worthwhile. All batteries have some tendency to freeze, but those with full charges are less susceptible.
Khalida Nisimova -- 2001