The Physics Factbook™
Edited by Glenn Elert -- Written by his students
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|Bibliographic Entry||Result |
|Cutnell, John D. & Johnson, Kenneth W. Physics. New York: Wiley, 1995.||"A new 'D' Battery has an emf of 1.5 V … a current of 28 A is produced"||28.0 A|
|Energy Density. Alkaline Manganese Dioxide. Duracell.||[see chart]||1–15 A|
|Principal Dry Battery Systems and Typical Characteristics. Energizer.||[see chart]||5 mA–45 A|
A battery is a device that generates electrical energy. Batteriesare a convenient portable source of energy and they differ fromother energy-conversion devices in that batteries contain no movingparts. Batteries are used to provide energy for devices from spacesatellites to trucks, to radios. The Italian scientist AlessandroVolta invented the first electric battery in about the year 1800.Before that time, only static electricity an innovation with nopractical value could be produced.
Chemical batteries convert chemical energy into electricalenergy by means of a chemical reaction, which consumes the metalwithin the cell. All chemical cells contain three main parts:a positively charged electrode called the cathode; a negativelycharged electrode, called the anode; and a chemical substance,called an electrolyte. The electrodes are submersed in the electrolyte.When the battery is connected to a circuit, a chemical reactiontakes place within the cell and current flows through the circuit.When the electrodes are fully consumed after much use, the batterycan no longer generate electricity. This is known as a primarybattery. A secondary battery is a battery that can be rechargedby regenerating the electrodes inside the cell. The battery canbe reused ad recharged many times.
The voltage of a single cell is about 1.5 volts. Higher voltagesmay be obtained by connecting several cells in series so thattheir voltages add together. The discharge rate of batteries isexpressed in ampere-hours. It is the current supplied by the battery,measured in amperes, multiplied by the number of hours the batterycan supply that amount of current. Typically, the longer the dischargetime, the more energy produced. Different batteries have differentdischarge rates.
|PRODUCT NUMBER||SIZE||NOMINAL VOLTAGE (volts)||RATED CAPACITY (ampere-hours)|
|Le Clanche||Zinc Chloride||Alkaline/Manganese Dioxide||Silver Oxide|
|Voltage Per Cell||1.5||1.5||1.5||1.5|
|Typical Service Capacities||Several Hundred mAh||Several Hundred mAh to 38 Ah||30 mAh to 45 Ah||5 mAh to 190 mAh|
William Cruz -- 2001
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