The Physics Factbook™
Edited by Glenn Elert -- Written by his students
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|Bibliographic Entry||Result |
|Softball. Britannica.com. 29 May 2001.||"The official softball is a smooth-seam ball 12 inches in circumference, weighing between 6.25 and 7 ounces (177 and 198 g)."||0.177–0.198 kg |
|"Another variation, popular especially in Chicago and other Midwestern American cities, is played with a ball that is 16 inches in circumference (weighing 9-10 ounces)."||0.2551–0.2835 kg |
|"Softball." Microsoft Encarta 98 Encyclopedia. CD-ROM. Microsoft, 1998.||"The "12-inch" ball measures between 11.88 and 12.13 in (30.2 and 30.8 cm) in circumference and weighs between 6.25 and 7 oz (177.2 and 198.4 g)."||0.1772–0.1984 kg |
|Softball. Compton's Encyclopedia Online v3.0. The Learning Company, 4 June 2001.||"Ball: smooth seam, not less than 11 7/8 inches or more than 12 1/8 inches in circumference. Weight not less than 6 1/4 ounces or more than 7 ounces."||0.1772–0.1984 kg |
(Standard Issue Ball)
|Amateur Softball Association. Official Rules of Softball. 2001: 60-61, 1995: 62.||"F. The 12-inch (30.0 cm) ball shall be between 11 7/8 inches (30.0 cm) and 12 1/8 inches (31.0 cm) in circumference and shall weigh between 6 1/4 ounces (180 g) and seven ounces (200.0 g)."||0.180–0.200 kg |
|"G. The 11-inch (27.0 cm) ball shall be between 10 7/8 inches (27.0 cm) and 11 1/8 (28.0 cm) in circumference."||0.165–0.175 kg |
|2000-2001 USSSA SLOW PITCH PLAYING RULES. United States Specialty Sports Association. 29 May 2001.||"The 12 inch ball shall have a core wound with a fine quality twisted yarn to 11 5/8 to 11 3/4 inches in circumference. The completed ball shall be 11 7/8 to 121/8 inches in circumference, and shall weigh between 6 and 7 1/4 ounces."||0.170–0.206 kg |
|"The completed 11 inch ball shall be between 10 7/8 to 11 1/8 inches in circumference and shall weigh between 5 7/8 and 6 1/8 ounces."||0.167–0.174 kg |
Softball is a modified version of baseball. There are onlya few differences between the two sports. The rules, the pitchspeed, the field, and the equipment are the only differences.There are three variations of softball, slow-pitch, fast-pitch,and modified-pitch. The equipment is only slightly different basedon their specifications. The difference found in the field isits size. The softball field is smaller than a baseball field.
The pitches for these different variations are all underhand. The speeds ofthe tossed ball goes as the name says. In slow-pitch, there's a height requirementthat must be met for the highest position of the ball. It must remain between6 and 12 feet (1.83 m and 3.66 m) above the ground. For Modified-pitch, therearen't any flight path requirements, but there are requirements for the way theball is tossed.
The ball used, is slightly larger than a baseball and slightlyheavier. It must be thrown underhand, as stated previously. Thereare a few balls that are used in softball depending on the choiceof the teams. Measurements for these balls are based on the circumferencearound the ball. The 11-inch ball (0.28 m) is used in women'ssoftball. The 12-inch (0.31 m) ball is the standard issue ball.The 16-inch (0.41 m) ball is used frequently for softball gamesin Chicago.
This sport was created as an indoor sport in Chicago. It waslater modified to an outdoor sport to keep firemen up to par withthe name Kitten League Ball or Mush Ball. It later gained nationalrecognition and had its name changed to diamond ball. Afterwards,it was changed to softball. The International Softball Federationwas created as the sport gained international recognition. In1996, a Women's Softball Competition was added to the Olympics.
William Poon -- 2001
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