The Physics Factbook
Edited by Glenn Elert -- Written by his students
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|Beichner and Serway. Physics for Scientists & Engineers with Modern Physics. 5th ed. Orlando: Saunders College, 2000: 963.||
|"Curie Temperature." McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science & Technology. 8th ed. 20 vols. N.P: McGraw-Hill, 1997.||
|Hall, H.E and J.R. Hook. Solid State Physics. 2nd ed. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons Ltd, 1991: 226.||
|Ferromagnetic Curie Temperatures. Georgia State University.||
|Lee, E.W. Magnetism: An Introductory Survey. New York: Dover Publications Inc, 1970: 117.||[see table below]||1043 K|
|Element- Atomic # in Brackets||Curie Temperature °K||Saturation intensity of Magnetization at 0 °K|
The source of magnetism is moving charge. When a material is magnetic, it means that it is capable of being magnetized, or able to attract a magnet. Ferromagnetism is a form of magnetism in which a substance tends to take a position with the magnetic axis parallel to the lines in a magnetic field. A ferromagnetic material is a substance that is able to become highly magnetic in a relatively weak magnetic field. A paramagnetic material is a substance whose ability to become magnetized is a little greater than a vacuum. A diamagnetic material is a substance that is repelled by a magnet because the atoms take a position at right angles to the lines of force of a magnet.
The Curie temperature is an essential temperature for a ferromagnetic material. For example, if a ferromagnetic material has a temperature under its Curie temperature, then the material has a net spontaneous magnetization, which means that the material becomes ferromagnetic, or magnetic. If a ferromagnetic material has a temperature over its Curie temperature, then the material becomes paramagnetic, or does not become a magnet.
The Curie temperature of iron is 1043 K. Even sources copyrighted before the year 1984 had the Curie temperature of iron to be the same number as more current sources. When the temperature of iron is at the Curie temperature or higher, then the iron becomes paramagnetic and when the temperature of iron is below the Curie temperature, then it is ferromagnetic. Each element has its own Curie temperature. For example, the Curie temperature of iron is different from that of Cobalt or Nickel.
Felicia Lau -- 2002
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