The Physics Factbook
Edited by Glenn Elert -- Written by his students
An educational, Fair Use website
|Joachim, David. Brilliant Food Tips and Cooking Tips: 5,000 Ingenious Kitchen hints, secrets, shortcuts and solutions. USA: Rodale, 2001.||
|"Cooking." The World Book Encyclopedia 2004 edition, Volume 4, Ci-Cz. Chicago: World Book, 1028.||"Food is baked by cooking it in an oven. In most cases, the oven temperature ranges from 300° to 450° F."||422–505 K|
|France, Christine. Cooking hints & tips. USA: Dorling Kindersley Publishing, 1997: 145.||
|Newly revised and enlarged The Settlement Cookbook. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1965.||
|Stewart, Martha. The Martha Stewart Living Cookbook. New York: Clarkson Potter, 2000: 591.||
Long ago, the oven was used in many parts of the world. It had an important role in cooking. The Ancient Egyptians baked bread in clay ovens heated with burning wood or charcoal. In Ancient Rome, the Romans baked bread in tile ovens. The Romans also cooked on raised brick hearths, where they set big kettles on iron tripods over the fire. During the Middle Ages, which was a period that lasted from the AD 400s to the 1500s, only the wealthy had ovens in their homes. In the 1600s and 1700s, many people in North America cooked their food in kettles or on spits in their fireplace, as Europeans did. Most of the fireplaces had built-in ovens.
In the world today in the year 2005, the home oven is an enclosed compartment for baking, broiling, roasting and heating food. It is a commonly used kitchen appliance that is used to cook foods, such as casseroles, meats, and baked goods, such as bread, pastries, cakes, and cookies. The temperature is determined depending on the type of food that is being cooked and the way the food should be cooked. Most recipes specify a cooking temperature to ensure the best results. For example, if a turkey were to be roasted, the temperature of the oven would range from 422 K to 450 K, whereas, for cookies, the oven temperature would need to be preheated to 464 K. Baking or broiling in an oven is considered to be dry-heat cooking. Cooking heats are generally known as dry or moist. Most foods properly cooked with dry heat finish with a rich aroma, color, and flavor.
There are two different kinds of ovens that are used in a household today. One type would be the gas oven. The gas oven has a gas line coming in from the back of the oven. The oven uses the gas as a method of fueling the flame. Another kind of oven would be the electric oven. The electric oven uses electricity from the house. The electrical energy is converted into heat energy. The electric oven is safer to use than the gas oven.
Oven temperatures usually range from 400 K (127°C/260°F) to 500 K (227 °C/440°F) for baking, broiling, and etc. The ovens differ according to the type of oven it is, the fuel used, and variability in power, so a person may need to make alterations if a dish is cooking more quickly or slowly than the cooking time in the recipe. The oven has made cooking today much easier and faster.
Jennifer Zhong -- 2005
|Sheldon, Margen. The Wellness Encyclopedia of Food and Nutrition. New York: Random House, 1992: 491.||"To bake fruits … Cover with foil and bake in a 325 degree oven until tender, basting occasionally with the liquid."||168 °C|
|Seymour, Claire. Inside a Stove. Danbury, CT: Grolier, 2001: 15.||[shows a picture of an oven knob depicting a maximum temperature of 240 °F]||< 116 °C|
|Buyer's Guide Natural Gas Ranges and Ovens [pdf]. American Gas Association. May 31, 2005.||"A self-cleaning oven has a high-heat cycle, with temperatures as high as 1,000 degrees."||< 538 °C|
|Cooking Terms and Tips. earthly pursuits. June 4, 2005. The following list of Cooking Terms and Tips is taken from "Twenty Lessons in Domestic Science - A condensed Home Study Course - Marketing: Food Principals, Functions of Food, Methods of Cooking, Glossary of Usual Culinary Terms, Pronunciations and Definitions. Etc." by Marian Cole Fisher (Compiled and printed for the Calumet Baking Powder Company) 1916.||"METHODS OF COOKING
Baking: Cooking by hot air confined in an oven.
Slow Oven: Temperature is about 250 to 300 degrees Fahr.
Moderate Oven: Temperature is about 350 to 400 degrees Fahr.
Hot Oven: Temperature is 400 to 450 degrees Fahr.
Very Hot Oven: Temperature is 450 to 550 degrees Fahr."
|Solar Cooking, Solar Ovens. Sun Ovens International. May 30, 2005.||"Reaches Temperatures of 360 to 400 Degrees Fahrenheit!"||182–204 °C|
|XL44 Self-Cleaning Gas Ranges. Louisville, KY: General Electric Company, 2001: 16.||"The temperature can be set between 170 degrees and 550 degrees."||77–288 °C|
For cooking and preparing food, no home should be without an oven. However, different types of home ovens produce different ranges of temperature. The four main kinds of are: natural gas ovens, propane gas ovens, electrical ovens, and solar-powered ovens.
Natural gas ovens and propane gas ovens work in a similar matter, i.e. by converting gas energy into heat energy that can be channeled via the burner or the inside of an oven. For this reason, they reach around the same maximum temperatures. The maximum temperature of a home gas oven is 537.7 degrees Celsius (which the heat reached by self-cleaning ovens during the self-cleaning process). For ordinary cooking, the maximum temperature used is 287.7 degrees Celsius.
Propane (C3H6) is made from both natural gas processing and crude oil refining in approximately equivalent quantities. Like natural gas, propane is odorless, and so an identifying odor is added to alert its user of leaks. Propane is stored outside in tanks in a liquefied form. Propane ovens reach about the same heat as natural gas ovens because they both work in a similar manner; they both turn gas into heat. However, propane is highly flammable and for this reason many people prefer to use natural gas ovens or electric ovens.
Electric ovens utilize electricity to heat food. The maximum heat of an electric oven depends on the brand and the model. The meat top of the oven (the top of the stove) can reach temperatures of around 185.5 degrees Celsius.
Solar powered ovens can be used when no other fuel is available. They are environmentally safer than both gas and electric ovens, with a maximum temperature falling between between and including 182.2 degrees Celsius and 204.4 degrees Celsius. There are many advantages to solar powered ovens; besides being environmentally safe, they also do not contribute to the gas and the electric bill. The downside, of course, is that if you should start to feel hungry after dark, you will have to either eat frozen and/or raw food or wait until the sun has risen and is in the right position in the sky to use the oven. Although the reliance on sunlight may be an inconvenience to some, solar powered ovens have proven themselves to be extremely useful when no other energy source is available; they are especially useful when on camping trips and other excursions devoid of access to gas or electricity.
Maya Nathan -- 2005
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