The Physics Factbook
Edited by Glenn Elert -- Written by his students
An educational, Fair Use website
|Open Water Sport Diver Manual. 4th ed. Englewood, Colorado: Jeppeson, 1986: (2-41)-(2-42), (2-29).||"Beyond 100 feet, nitrogen narcosis can affect your ability to think and make judgments; at 150 feet, you may become somewhat dizzy. Between 200 and 250 feet, you may be unable to communicate or perform simple motor or mental tasks, and below 250 feet, the average diver is more or less useless and becomes a safety menace to himself and others. [see diagram below]"||76 m|
|"No one knows exactly how much pressure the human body can withstand, but it is deeper than 1,500 feet."||457 m|
|Heilman, Christine. "Deepest Dive". The Guinnes Book of Records. 35th ed. 1996.||"The record dive with scuba gear is 437 feet, by John J. Gruener and R. Neal Watson off Freeport Grand Bahama on October 14, 1968."||133 m|
|Ange, Michael. What's In Your Tank? Scuba Diving Magazine. Oct. 2004. 22 May 2005.||"For example, a 30 percent nitrox mix on a dive to 132 feet would result in a PPO2 of 1.5, or a maximum single dive exposure of 120 minutes. However, if the diver's cylinder contained 32 percent oxygen, he would experience a PPO2 of 1.6. This significantly decreases his safe exposure to just 45 minutes."||40 m|
|Sanchez, Carmen. South Africa woman breaks world scuba diving record. Cyber Diver News Network. 25 Oct. 2004. 22 May 2004.||"Another South African, Nuno Gomes, recently tried to set a new world record for the deepest scuba dive but failed with a dive of "only" 271 meters, well short of the planned maximum depth of 320 meters and the current record of 313 meters set by Mark Ellyatt in Thailand on December 18, 2003."||313 m|
There are two different forms of underwater diving. Someone can dive while holding their breath and surfacing when needing air, or they can use a breathing apparatus. This style of underwater diving is known as SCUBA diving (Self- Contained Underwater Breathing Apparatus). Scuba divers use an air tank, which allows them to stay underwater for a longer period of time.
The first breathing apparatus was invented in 1771 by a British Engineer. It was an air pump was used a hose to connect to the helmet of the diver. Jacques Cousteau co-invented the aqualung, developed a one-person, jet-propelled submarine and helped start the first manned undersea colonies. He designed the modern day scuba diving gear, the demand regulator and the diving suit. Over the years, the breathing apparatus developed into the oxygen tank, which is easier to use, safer, and allows the diver to travel to deeper depths.
In 1917, a man by the name of Draeger produces an enriched air rebreather with a depth limit of 130 feet (40 meters). On October 14, 1968, two men by the names of John Gruener and R. Watson set a new scuba record of 437 feet (133 meters). No one knows that exact depth and pressure the human body can withstand while scuba diving, but it is deeper than 1,500 feet (457 meters). No one is going to reach that depth while scuba diving because of various symptoms. Beyond 100 feet (30 meters), nitrogen narcosis affects someone's ability to think and at 150 feet (46 meters), they may become dizzy. Once a diver reaches 250+ feet (76+ meters), they are considered useless and become a safety hazard to themselves and people around them.
The latest attempt to break the scuba record was by Nuno Gomes, who planed to dive to a depth of 320 meters, but was only able to reach 271 meters. The record is currently held by Mark Ellyatt of 313 meters which was set on December 18, 2003.
Michael Calamera -- 2005
Author, Illustrator, Webmaster
chaos, physics, facts, eworld, get bent
No condition is permanent.