The Physics Factbook
Edited by Glenn Elert -- Written by his students
An educational, Fair Use website
|Ryser, Elliot & Marth, Elmer. Listeria, Listeriosis, and Food Safety. CRC Press, 1999: 583.||"Of greater importance is the fact that Listeria populations decreased < 2 orders of magnitude on chicken breast cooked to an internal temperature of 71.1 degrees Celsius, the minimum internal temperature to which poultry must be heated to designate the product as fully cooked in the United States."||71.1 °C|
|Conklin, Martha & Martin, Josephine. Managing Child Nutrition Programs. Leadership for Excellence. Jones and Bartlett Publishers, 1999: 484.||"An internal temperature of at least 165 degrees Fahrenheit is required to kill the bacteria."||73.9 °C|
|Berthold-Bond, Annie. Home Enlightenment: Practical, Earth-Friendly Advice for Creating a Nurturing, Healthy, and Toxin-Free Home and Lifestyle. Rodale Publishing, 2005: 172.||"Ground turkey and chicken must be cooked to 165 degrees Fahrenheit; when you are cooking an entire bird or thighs and wings, make sure that they are at least 170 degrees Fahrenheit and well browned."||72.2–76.7 °C|
|Bianco, Silvia. Simply Saute: Fast, Easy, and Healthy Italian Cooking -- All in One Pan. Marlowe & Company, 2003: 50.||"Chicken must be cooked thoroughly, with all pieces reaching an internal temperature of 150 to 160 degrees Fahrenheit."||65.6–71.1 °C|
|Poultry Roasting Timetable. 1st Travelers Choice Internet Cookbook. Virtual Cities.||
Chicken is perhaps one of the most widely know and widely eaten meats in the world today. Though the chicken is a descendent of a fowl that roamed through Asian jungles long ago, today one can find chicken in almost every country. Due to the fact that many dishes/meals have been created using chicken, there are multiple ways of preparing chicken as well. Overall, it is suggested that whole chickens should be cooked at high temperatures (anything over 149 degrees Celsius or 300 degrees Fahrenheit). It is also suggested however that chicken shouldn't be cooked at a temperature that is too high (anything over 205 degrees Celsius or 400 degrees Fahrenheit) because the chicken can possibly burn, and/or the outside of the chicken will be prepared while the inside will not fully cook. Much emphasis is placed on preparing chicken at the right temperature and for the right amount of time to avoid diseases like salmonella (contrary to popular belief a person cant contract bird flu from eating chicken, they contract it by simply being in close contact with a bird that has the disease already). When the chicken is cut up and separated, those pieces can be heated at a lower temperature than the whole chicken was and can be heated for less time. In addition, foods derived from chicken such as chicken wings, buffalo wings and various parts of the chicken can be cooked at lower temperatures and for less time than whole chickens.
Olubunmi Fashusi -- 2007
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