|Beichner, Robert J., Jewett, John J., Serway, Raymond H. Physics for Scientists and Engineers. New York: Saunders College, 2000.||"Jupiter: 1.9 × 1027 kg"||1.9 × 1027 kg|
|"Jupiter." The World Book. Millennium 2000. Chicago: World book Inc. 2000.||"Its [Jupiter's] mass is 318 times larger than that of earth"||1.9 × 1027 kg|
|Watters, Thomas R. Smithsonian Guides: Planets. New York, Macmillan USA, 1995.||"Jupiter: 317.9"Where the units is the mass of earth"||1.9 × 1027 kg|
|"Solar System." Young Students Encyclopedia. USA: Xerox Corporation 1977.||"Mass(E=1): Jupiter = 318.0"||1.9 × 1027 kg|
|Stott, Carole. New Astronomer. New York: DK publishing, 1999.||"Jupiter: Mass(Earth=1):318"||1.9 × 1027 kg|
The mass of an object is the quantity of matter the object is composed of. One way to determine the mass of a planet is use the orbits of its satellites. To do this one finds the angular separation between the satellite and the planet, and the corresponding physical distance between the satellite and the planet. Then a graph is made of the position of the satellite with respect to the time elapsed from the initial observation. From the graph, one can determine the mass of the planet.
Jupiter is the fifth and largest planet in our solar system. It was named after Jupiter, who is related to the Greek god Zeus. The mass of Jupiter has been calculated to be 1.9 × 1027 kg, which is 318 times greater than the mass of Earth. The density of Jupiter however is only 1.33 times that of water which is 24% that of the Earth. Jupiter's density is believed to be so low because it is mainly composed of hydrogen and helium — the lightest elements. Jupiter's atmosphere is comprised of 86% hydrogen, and 14% helium with trace amounts of methane, ammonia, phosphate, water, acetylene, ethane, germanium, and carbon monoxide. The atmosphere is what gives Jupiter the colorful tinted clouds at different levels of its atmosphere. Jupiter have an orbital period that is 11.862 Earth years, while the time it takes to rotate is 9.864 hours and is the smallest of all the planets. The planet has a diameter of 1.43 × 108 km.
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