|Berger, John J. Charging Ahead: The Business of Renewable Energy and What it means for America. Canada: Fitzhenry & Whiteside Ltd., 1997: 287.||"But today's lead-acid batteries have only about 30 watt-hours of energy per kilogram, and need to be replaced every two or three years, or after as few as 15,000-20,000 miles."||0.6–7.3 MJ|
|Sonnenschein Prevailer Dryfit German DF Series SLA GEL Batteries. Battery Web.||[see below]||2.1–8.6 MJ|
|Optima Batteries. Battery Web.||[see below]||2.1–4.8 MJ|
A battery is a device that converts chemical energy into electrical energy. A dry-cell flashlight battery consists of an electric cell, but larger batteries are made up of a group of cells that are connected to act as a source of direct electric at a given voltage. A cell consists of two dissimilar substances, a positive electrode and a negative electrode, that conduct electricity, and a third substance, an electrolyte, that acts chemically on the electrodes. A group of several such cells connected together is called a battery. Batteries are widely used as a source of direct current electrical energy in automobiles, boats, aircraft, portable electric and electronic equipment, and lightning. A car battery is used mainly to start the motor. Once the motor is running, an alternator supplies current to recharge the battery. A few car battery companies include Diehard and Trojan.
The formula for determining battery energy is:
E = P·t = V·I·t
I = Current Expressed in amperes
V = Electromotive force expressed in volts
P = Power expressed in watts
t = Time expressed in hours
E = Energy in joule
For Car Batteries:
Source: Sonnenschein Prevailer Dryfit German DF Series SLA GEL Batteries. Battery Web.
|Model||Volts||Ah at 20 hours||Weight (lb.)|
DF115: (50 Ah) x (12 V) x (3600 s) = 2,160,000 J
DF180: (85 Ah) x (12 V) x (3600 s) = 3,678,000 J
DF8D: (200 Ah) x (12 V) x (3600 s) = 8,640,000 J
Source: Optima Batteries. Battery Web.
34/800S: (50 Ah) x (12 V) x (3600 s) = 2,160,000 J
D34/D750S: (55 Ah) x (12 V) x (3600 s) = 2,376,000 J
TF: (110 Ah) x (12 V) x (3600 s) = 4,752,000 J
Raymond Tran -- 2002