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Mass of a Human Liver

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Bibliographic Entry Result
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"Liver." The Encyclopaedia Britannica Eleventh Edition Vol XV. Encyclopedia Britannica, 1997: 801. "It [Liver] weighs about three pounds or one-fortieth of the body weight." 1.5 kg
"Liver." 1996 Edition The World Book Encyclopedia L. Volume 12.World Book, 1996: 393. "The liver is a reddish-brown mass weighing about 3 pounds (1.4 kilograms)." 1.4 kg
"Fegato."V. 14 Enciclopedia Italiana ETO-FEO. 1959: 969. "FISIOLOGIA. La mole stessa di questa che è la più voluminosa ghiandola del l'organismo, il cui peso rappresenta da 2 a 4 % del peso del corpo, è indizio del l' importanza e della molteplicità delle sue funzioni."
["PHYSIOLOGY. The mass is the same as that of the most voluminous gland of the organism, whose weight represents from 2 to 4% of the weight of the body, which is evidence of the importance and of the multiplicity of its functions."]
2–4% of body weight
"Liver." Encarta. Microsoft Encarta Online Encyclopedia, 2004. ""In a healthy adult, the liver weighs about 1.5 kg (3 lb) and is about 15 cm (6 in) thick." 1.5 kg
Brunner & Suddarth. "Assessment and Management of Patients With Hepatic and Biliary Disorder." Textbook of Medical-Surgical-Nursing 5th Edition. Brunner/Suddarth, 1984: 849. "The liver is located behind the ribs in the upper right portion of the abdominal cavity. It weighs about 1500 g and is divided into four lobes." 1.5 kg
Sherlock, Sheila. "Anatomy and Function." Diseases of the Liver and Biliary System Eighth Edition. London, Blackwell Scientific Publications, 1989: 1. "The liver is located behind the ribs in the upper right portion of the abdominal cavity. It weighs about 1500 g and is divided into four lobes." 1.5 kg
Liver explained. Better Health Channel. Victoria [Australia] Online: Government Entry Point for Victorians. "It is the largest internal organ of the human body, and weighs around 1.5 kg in the average adult." 1.5 kg
LIVER. LoveToKnow Free Online Encyclopedia. (Based on the 11th edition of the Encyclopedia Britannica, 1911.) "It weighs about Fissu [sic] three pounds or one-fortieth of the hotly [sic] weight." 1.5 kg
Dr. James Robilotti, 29 Washington Square West, New York, NY (212) 475-4030 (The Best Gastroenterologist in the World!) "The Liver is 1200-1500 g." 1.2–1.5 kg

The liver is the largest and most massive internal organ of the human body. The mass of a healthy human liver is approximately 1.2–1.5 kg (2.4–3.0 lb). The liver's mass comprises one-fortieth to one-fiftieth of a total adult body's weight and one-eighteenth of the body's weight during infancy. Located in the upper right part of the abdomen behind the ribs, the liver is dark red-brown organ with a soft, spongy texture that is nearly 15 cm (6 in) thick and consists of two main overlapping lobes (the right lobe and the left lobe).

The magnitude of its mass suggests the liver's vital role in fulfilling the body's metabolic needs and maintaining daily homeostasis. The liver performs more than 500 different functions in the body. As part of the digestive system, the liver aids the body in fat digestion, manufactures and secretes bile, regulates the levels of chemicals in the blood, synthesizes proteins, filters waste products from the bloodstream, and receives nutrient-rich blood from the gastrointestinal tract and either stores or transforms these nutrients into chemicals that are used elsewhere in the body.

The liver possesses the unique ability to regenerate cells that have been destroyed by some short-term injury or disease. However, long-term repeated damage to the liver may result in permanent irreversible changes or damage. Infections or diseases of the liver, often caused by excessive alcohol consumption, may hinder the organ from performing its many essential functions.

Mary Pennisi -- 2004

Bibliographic Entry Result
(w/surrounding text)
Seeley, Rod R.; Stephens, Trent D.; Tate, Philli.The Essentials of Anatomy and Physiology (3rd Edition). New York: McGrawhill, 1999. "The liver weighs about 1.36 kilograms (3 lbs) and is located in the right upper quadrant of the abdomen, tucked against the inferior surface of the diaphragm." 1.36 kg
Liver. MSN Encarta. 2000 "In a healthy adult, the liver weighs about 1.5 kg (3lbs)." 1.5 kg
Baharestani, Bahador; Bannazaden, Hassein; Salehian, Mohammed Taghi. Liver Weight and the Dimensions of its vessels and Biliary Ducts: Astudy on 40 Iranian Cadavers. 2000. "The length of extra-hepatic ducts was 3.6±1.7cm and the weight of the liver was 1453±260 g." 1.453 ± 2.60 kg
Kapit, Wynn; Elson, Lawrence M. The Anatomy Coloring Book.NY: Harper and Row Publishers, 1977. "The liver weighing about 1.5 kg, occupied the upper right and part of the upper left quadrants of the abdominal cavity." 1.5 kg

The property by which the body remains at rest or remains in motion with constant velocity is called inertia, and Newton's First Law is often called the law of inertia. Experience tells us that some object have more inertia than others. It is obviously more difficult to change the motion of a boulder than that of a basketball, for example. The inertia of an object is measured by its mass -- quantity of matter it contains. The quantity of matter in an object is determined by the number of atoms and molecules of various types in it. Thus, unlike weight, mass does not vary with location. The mass of an object is the same on earth, in orbit, or on the surface of the moon. In practice, it is very difficult to count and identify all of the atoms and molecules in an object, and-so operationally masses are determined by comparison with the standard kilogram.

The human liver is a dark red-brown organ with a soft, spongy texture. It occupies the upper right and part of the upper left quadrants of the abdominal cavity. The mass of the human liver is about 1.5 kg.

The liver is a simple structure. It consists of two main lobes, left and right. As the liver does its work, nutrients are collected, wastes are removed, and chemical substances are released into the body through these vessels.

The liver's most important functions include helping the body to digest fats and to store reserves of nutrients. It also filters poisons and wastes from the blood and regulates the levels of many chemicals found in the bloodstream. The liver is only one of its kind among the body's vital organs in that it can redevelop or grow back the cells that have been destroyed by some short-term injury or disease. If the liver is damaged repeatedly over a long period of time, it may undergo changes that permanently interfere with its function.

Steven Drake -- 2004