Density of Water

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Bibliographic Entry Result
(w/surrounding text)
Standardized
Result
McGuire, Thomas. Earth Science: The Physical Setting. New York, AMSCO, 1998: 123. [see image 1 below] 1 g/cm3
Cohen, Paul. Geffer, Saul. Chemistry A Contemporary Approach. New York. AMSCO, 1994: 18. [see image 2 below] 1 g/cm3
Dorn, Henry. Chemistry: The Study of Matter: Fourth Edition. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall 1987: 72. [see image 3 below] 1 g/cm3
Water (Molecule), Wikipedia. 2007. [see table and graph 4 below] 1 g/cm3
Density of Water, Simetric. October 9, 2004. [see table and graph 5 below] 1 g/cm3

Water is a very common substance here on Earth. Almost 75% of the Earth's surface is covered with water and almost every living thing on Earth is made up of 90% water. Water can change into three phases of matter. Water is most common in it's liquid state when it is kept a normal pressure and between 0 degree Celsius and 100 degree Celsius. Water turns to ice as it's solid state from 0 degrees Celsius and below. Water turns into steam from 100 degrees and above.

Density is defined as mass per unit of volume. The commonly used formula to determine the density of an object is ρ = m/V, ρ (rho) represents density, m represents mass, and V represents volume. The units used to indicate density are [kg/m3] or more commonly used [g/cm3]. The conversion between the two is 1000 kg/m3 to 1 g/cm3.

Water never has an absolute density because its density varies with temperature. Water has its maximum density of 1g/cm3 at 4 degrees Celsius. When the temperature changes from either greater or less than 4 degrees, the density will become less then 1 g/cm3. Water has the maximum density of 1 g/cm3 only when it is pure water. Other factors affect water's density such as whether it is tap or fresh water or salt water. These variations of water changes its density because what's in the water has its own density.

Image 1 Image 2 Image 3
     
Table 4 Graph 4
Temp (°C) Density (g/cm3)
30 0.9957
20 0.9982
10 0.9997
4 1.0000
0 0.9998
−10 0.9982
−20 0.9935
−30 0.9839
   
Table 5
Temp
( °C)
Density
pure water
(g/cm3)
Density
pure water
(kg/m3)
Density
tap water
(g/cm3)
Density
pure water
lb/cu.ft
Specific Gravity
4 °C reference
Specific Gravity
60 °F reference
0 (solid) 0.9150 915.0 - - 0.915 -
0 (liquid) 0.9999 999.9 0.99987 62.42 0.999 1.002
4 1.0000 1000 0.99999 62.42 1.000 1.001
20 0.9982 998.2 0.99823 62.28 0.998 0.999
40 0.9922 992.2 0.99225 61.92 0.992 0.993
60 0.9832 983.2 0.98389 61.39 0.983 0.985
80 0.9718 971.8 0.97487 60.65 0.972 0.973
100 (gas) 0.0006 see steam tables... - -
 
Graph 5

Allen Ma -- 2007


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